Web-Materials

 
Index

A
Accelerated failure tests, 177
Acceptors, 390, 461
Accumulation, 570
Accumulation region, 444
Activated state, 98
Activation energy, 98
Activator, 820, 841
        excitation , 822
Active device, defined, 570
Affinity, electron, 375, 386,462
Allotropy, 61-63, 102
        transition temperature, 61
Alloy, 178
        ternary , iii-v, 545
Amorphous semiconductors, 78-82, 458-461
        bandgap, 460
        extended states, 458, 462
        localized states, 459, 463
        mobility edge, 460
        tail states, 460
Amorphous solids, 78-82, 98-99
Ampere's law, 693
Angular momentum, 269
        intrinsic, 245-247
        orbital, 232
        potential energy, 249-250
        total, 252-253
Anion, 6, 15, 99
Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), 744-748, 762
Anisotropic magnetocrystalline, 706-708,
        shape, 725, 763
Antibonding orbital, 286, 288
Antiferromagnetism, 699, 729
Antireflection coating, 570, 802-803
Arrhenius rate equation, 47
a-Si:H, 82, 459
Aspect ratio, 175
Atomic concentration, 55
Atomic magnetic moments, 687-688
        Bohr magneton, 688, 759
        unfilled subshells, 688
Atomic mass, 8
Aromic mass number, 8
Atomic mass units (amu), 8, 99
Atomic number, 4
        effective (Zeff), 240
Atomic packing factor (APF), 55, 99
Atomic structure, 3-8
         orbital angular momentum quantum number, 4, 232, 270
         principal quantum number, 4, 232, 270
        shell, 4, 239
        subshells, 4, 239
Atomic weight. See Atomic mass
Attenuation, 841
Attenuation coefficient, 841
Attenuation in optical fibers, 817-819
        graph, 818
        Rayleigh scattering limit, 819
Avalanche breakdown, 502-504, 570
Avalanche effect, 503
Average free time (in electron drift), 117, See also Mean free time
Avogadro's number, 8, 25, 99


B
B versus H, 716-717
Balmer series, 278
Balmer-Rydberg formula, 245
Band theory of solids, 291-299
Bandgap (energy gap) Eg, 302, 355, 357, 375, 464
        direct band gap, 430, 451
        indirect band gap,430, 452
        mobility gap, 460
         narrowing and emitter injection efficiency, 576
        temperature dependence, 467
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer
        photo, 731
        theory, 739
Barkhausen effect, 715
Basis, 50, 95, 99
BCC (body centered cubic). See Crystal structure
BCS theory. See Barden-Cooper-Schrieffer
BCT (body centered tetragonal). See Crystal structure
Bednorz, J.George, 684
Beer-Lambert law, 428
Biaxial crystals, 828
        negative, 828
        positive, 828
Binary eutectic phase diagrams, 90-95
Bipolar junction transistor, 475, 506-522, 570
        a, 509-510
        active region, 511
        amplifier, CB, 515-517
        b, 510, 512
        base, 506
        base transport factor, aT, 509-510
        base-width modulation, 512, 570. See also Early effect
        collector, 506
        collector junction, 507, 570
        common base (CB) configuration, 506-517
        commonemitter (CE) DC characteristics, 517-518
        current gain a, CB, 509-510
        current transfer ratio a, 509, 514
        emitter, 506
        emitter injection efficiency, 513-514, 575
        emitter junction, 507 , 571
        emitter current, 509
        equations pnp BJT, 574-575
        input resistance, 516, 519
        power gain, 509
        saturated operating region, 518
        small signal equivalent circuit, 572
        small signallow-frequency model, 518-522
        transconductance, 520
        transistor action, 509
        transit time, minority carrier, 510
        voltage gain, 516, 520
Birefrigence, See also Retarding plates
        circular, 835-837
        crystals, 827, 841
        of calcite, 832-833
        of calcite crystal, photo, 828
BJT. See Bipolar junction transistor
Blackbody radiation, 201-205
        Planck's formula, 203
        Rayleigh-Jeans law, 203
        Stefan's black body radiation law, 203
        Wien's law, 277
Black's equation, 177, 178
Bloch wall, 706, 708-711, 759
        potential energy, 710
        thickness, 710
Bloch wavefunctions, 450, 461, 462
Bohr magneton, 280, 688, 759
Bohr model, 3
Bohr radius, 233, 239
Bohr's correspondence principle, 217
Boltzmann constant, 28
Boltzmann energy distribution, 39
Boltzmann factor, 38
Boltzmann statistics, 312-313, 363, 479, 661
Bond, general, 9-25
        energy, 11, 99
        length, 10
        polar, 22
        primary, 9-18, 102
        relative angle, 78
        secondary 18-22, 102
        switching, 155
        twisting, 79
Bonding and types of solids, 9-25
Bonding (binding) energy, 11, 99,
Bonding orbital, 286, 288
Boson particle, 740
Bound charges, 589
Boundary conditions
        dielectrics, 614-620, 670
        electric field, 794
        quantum mechanics, 210
Bragg diffraction condition, 194, 269, 356, 848-852
        Bragg angle, 849
        diffracted beam, 848
        diffraction angle, 849
        for cubic crystals, 851
Bragg distributed reflector, 568
Bragg's law. See Bragg diffraction condition
Brass, 178, 182
Bravais lattices, 95-98
        unit cell geometry, 56, 97
Bronze, 178
Brewster's angle, 796, 841
Brillouin zones, 355, 357-361
Buckminsterfullerene. See Carbon
Built-in field, 570
Built-in potential, 421-422, 478-480
Built-in voltage, 570
Bulk modulus, 99


C
Capacitance
        definition, 584
        per unit volume, 634
        temperature coefficient (TCC), 636
        volume efficiency, 634
Capacitor
        constructions, 631-634
        dielectric materials, 631
        dielectrics table, 635, 678
        electrolytic, 633
        equivalent circuits for parallel and series, 676
        polyester (PET), 636, 677
        polymeric film, 632
        tantalum, 634
        temperature coefficient, 363
        types compared, 631, 635, 678
Carbon, 61-63
        amorphous, 63
        Buckminsterfullerene, 61-62
        diamond, 61, 62
        graphite, 61, 62
        lonsdaleite, 62
        properties (table), 63
Carbon nanotube (CNT), 63, 336, 370
        field enhancement factor, 370
Carrier concentration
        majority carrier, 410
        minority carrier, 410
        of extrinsic semiconductor , 388-392
        of intrinsic semiconductor , 380-387
        saturation temperature, 397
        temperature dependence of, 396-401
                extrinsic range, 398
                intrinsic range, 398
                ionization range, 397
Cathode, 363
Cathodoluminescence, 335, 820, 843
Cation, 6, 15, 99
Cauchy coefficients (table), 782
Cauchy dispersion equation, 783, 784
CB. See Conduction band
Ceramic, magnets, 726
Chemisorption, 74
Chip (integrated circuit), 570
Circular birefrigence, 835-837, 841
        media, 836
        optical activity, 835
        specific rotary power , 836, 844
Cladding, 791
Clausius-Mossotti equation, 593-594, 602-670
Coaxial cable failure, 628-631
        thermal breakdown, 678-679
Coercive field (coercivity), 715, 759
Cohesive energy, 17
Cole-Cole plots, 611-614
Collimated beam, 36
Common base (CB) BJT configuration. See Bipolar junction transistor
Compensated semiconductor, 461
Compensation doping, 392-396, 461, 465
Complementary principle, 269
Complex dielectric constant, 605-611, 804-811
        loss angle, 610
        Loss tangent, 607
        relaxation peak, 607
Complex propagation constant, 805, 842
Complex refractive index, 804-811, 842, 845-847
        extinction coefficient , 805, 842
        for a-Si, 806
        of InP, 808
        resonance absorption , 809-811
Complex relative permittivity. See Complex dielectric constant
Compton effect, 269
Compton scattering, 199-202
Conduction, 112-122, 416-422
        in metals, 318-320
        in semiconductors, 378-380
        in silver, 319
Conduction band (CB) 302, 374-378, 461
Conduction electron concentration, 115, 148
Conduction electrons, 115, 155, 181, 299
Conduction in solids
        electrical, 113-148
        thermal, 149-154
        in thin films, 166-167
Conductivity
        activation energy for, 161
        electrical, 178, 180-181
        of extrinsic semiconductor , 389
        of Fermi level electrons in metal, 318
        of intrinsic semiconductor , 380
        of ionic crystals and glasses , 159-162
        lattice-scattering-limited , 124
        of metals, 114, 350-352, 367
        of nonmetals, 154-162
        of semiconductors, 155-159
        temperature dependence of , 122-125, 404-406
Conductivity-mixture rule, 140
Contact potential, 320-322
Continuity equation, 422-427
        steady state, 424-427
        time-dependant, 422-423
Continuous random network (CRN) model, 79
Cooper pairs, 740, 759
Coordination number (CN) 12, 17
        definition, 99
Core, 791
Corona discharge, 622, 670
Covalent bond, 99
Covalent solids, 595-596
Covalently bonded solids, 11-13
Critical angle, 842
Critical electric field, 571
Crystal, 99
Crystal directions and planes, 56-61, 110
Crystal lattice, 49-63
        different types,97
Crystal structure, 50
Crystal periodicity, 49
        strained around a point defect , 66
        body-centered cubic (BCC) , 51, 97, 109
        body-centered tetragonal (BCT) , 97, 98
        close-packed, 13, 51
        CsCl, 54
        diamond cubic, 52, 109
        face-centered cubic (FCC) , 14, 50, 55, 97, 100
                diffraction pattern (figure), 852
        hexagonal close-packed (HCP) , 51
        NaCl, 51-53
        polymorphic, 61
        properties (table), 54
        study using x-ray diffracion , 849-852
                Laue technique, 850
                powder technique, 851
        types, 49-56, 97
        zinc blende (ZnS), 53, 109
Crystal surface, 73-76
        absorption, 74
        adsorption, 74
        chemisorption, 74
        dangling bonds, 74, 81
        Kossel model, 74
        passivating layer, 74
        physisorption (physical adsorption), 74
        reconstructed, 74
        terrace-ledge-kink model , 74
Crystal symmetry, 98
Crystal systems, 98
Crystal types, 49-56
Crystalline defects, 64-76
Crystalline solid, 49
Crystalline state, 49-63
Crystallization, 99
        from melt, 70
        nuclei, 70
Cubic crystals, 97
        interplanar separarion, 851
Cubic symmetry, 50
Curie temperature, 648, 650, 670, 703-704
        tabel, 704
Curie-Weiss law, 697
Current in plane (CIP), 747
Czochralski growth, 76-77


D
Dangling bonds, 81
De Broglie relationship, 205-207, 269
Debye equations, 611-614, 670
        non-Debye relaxation, 614
Debye loss peak, 612
Debye heat capacity, 342-348
Debye frequency, 344, 363
Debye temperature, 344, 363
        tabel, 346
Defect structures, 75-76
Deformation, plastic (permanent), 69
Degeneracy, 230
        three-fold, 230
Degenerate semiconductor, 406, 461
Degree of freedom, 28
Delocalized electrons, 13
        electron cloud or gas, 13, 295
Demagnetization, 717-719
Density of states, 305-311, 315-316, 363, 380-382, 429
        effective density at CB edge, 382, 461
        effective density at VB edge, 382
Density of vibrational states, 364
Deperming. See Demagnetization
Depletion capacitance, 498-499, 564
Depletion region. See pn junction
Depolarizing field, 657-658
        depolarizing factor, 657
Diamagnetism, 696-698
        deperming, 718
Dichroism, 833
Dielectric breakdown, 620-631
        aging effects, 621
        breakdown mechanisms compared , 628
        in coaxial cables, 628-631, 678-679
        electrical tree, 626
        electrofracture, 624-625, 671
        electromechanical, 624-625, 671
        electron avalanche breakdown , 623
        electronic, 623-624, 671
        external discharges, 627-628, 671
        in gases, 621-622
        internal discharges, 625-626 , 671
        intrinsic, 623-624, 671
        in liquids, 622-623
        loss, 603-611
        partial discharge, 621-622 , 672
        in solids, 623-631
        surface tracking, 628, 671, 672
        table, 621
Dielectric breakdown-Cont.
        thermal, 624, 673
        water treeing, 627
Dielectric materials, 583-683
        constant. See Relative permitivity
        definition, 670
        dispersion relation, 666
        loss, 603-611, 670
        loss table, 611
        low -k, 175
        properties (table), 678
        strength, 584, 620-621, 670. See also Dielectric breakdown
        strength table, 621
        volume efficiency, 634
Dielectric mirrors, 803, 842
Dielectric mixtures, 667-669
        effective dielectric constant , 667
        Lichtenecker formula, 668
        logarithmic mixture rules, 668
        Maxwell-Garnett formula, 669
Dielectric resonance, 607, 662-667, 670
        frictional force, 663
        Lorentz dipole oscillator model, 664
        natural angular frequency, 664
        peak, 665
        relaxation peak, 665
        resonant angular frequency, 664
        restoring force, 663
        spring constant, 663
Diffraction, 269, 848-852. See also Bragg diffraction condition
        angle, 849
        beam, 848
        patterns (figure), 193, 852
        study of crystal structure, 352-361, 849-852
Diffractrometer, 851
Diffusion, 46-49, 99 416-422, 461, 571
        coefficient, 48, 99, 420
        current, 484
        current density, 416, 418
        diffusion length, 424, 427, 483
        mean free path, 416-417
Diffusion capacitance, 500-502, 571
        diode action, 501
        dynamic conductance, 501
        dynamic (incremental) resistance, 500, 571
Diffusion coefficient, 420
Diode. See pn Junction
        action, 501
        equation, 488
        laser, 266-269
        long, 572
        photodiodes, 564-566
        short, 486, 572
Dipolar (orientational) polarization, 598-600, 660-662, 670
        Langevin function, 661-662
        relaxation equation, 670
        relaxation process, 604-670
        relaxation time, 604
Dipole moment. See Electric dipole moment; Magnetic dipole moment
Dipole relaxation, 604-607, 670
Dipole-dipole interaction, 20-21
Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice, 314
Direct recombination capture coefficient, 469
Dislocations, 68-70, 99
        edge, 68, 99
        screw, 69, 102
Dispersion relation, 364, 666, 842. See also Refractive index
Dispersive medium, 785, 842
Domains. See Ferromagnetism
Donors, 389, 461
Doping, 388-396
        compensation, 392-394
        n- type, 384, 388-390
        p- type, 384, 390-392
Doppler effect, 265, 269
Double-heterostructure (DH) device, 547
Drift mobility, 117, 401-404
        definition, 178
        due to ionic conduction, 162
        effective, 127, 403
        impurity dependence, 401-404
        impurity-scattering-limited , 127, 402, 463
        tables, 146, 386
        temperature dependence, 401-404
Drift velocity, 114, 118, 121, 157, 178, 379
Drude model, 114-122, 319
Dulong-Petit rule, 30, 344
Dynamic (incremental) resistance, 500-502, 571


E
Early effect, 512, 570
Early voltage, 538
Eddy currents and losses, 760, 766
Effiective mass, 303-305, 364, 379, 453, 462
EHP. See Electron-hole pairs
Eigenenergy, 214
Eigenfunction, 210
Einstein relation, 188, 419, 462
E-k diagrams, 448-452
Elastic modulus, 24-25, 100
Electric dipole moment, 19, 100, 583, 585-589, 670
        definition, 19, 100, 670
        induced, 30, 586, 779-780
        in nonuniform electric field , 674-675
        permanent, 15, 19, 598
        relaxation time, 604
Electric displacement, 654-658
        depolarizing factor, 657
        depolarizing field, 657
Electric susceptibility, 591, 671
Electrical conductivity, 178, 180-181
Electrical contacts, 143-144
Electrical noise, 42-45, 108. See also Noise
        Johnson resitor noise equation, 44
        rms noise voltage, 44
Electrochemical potential, 321
Electrodeposition, 167
Electroluminescence, 544, 820, 843
        injection, 823
Electromechanical coupling factor, 642
Electromigration, 172
        accelerated failure tests, 177
        of Al-Cu interconnects, 189
        barrier, 177
        definition, 178
        hillock, 177
        mean time to 50 percent failure , 177
        rate, 177
        void, 177
Electomigration and Black's equation, 176-177
Electron
        average energy in CB, 385, 463
        average energy in metal , 317, 363
        concentration in CB, 382, 388-390, 392
        conduction electrons, 115, 155, 181, 299
        confined, 212-217
        crystal momentum 451, 454, 813-814
        current due to, 419
        diffraction in crystals, 352-361
        diffraction patterns, 206
        diffusion current density, 418
        effective mass, 303-305, 364, 379, 453-455, 462
        effective speed in metals, 317
        energy in hydrogenic atom,236-241
        energy in metals, 317
        Fermi-Dirac statistics, 123
        gas, 295
        group velocity, 454
        magnetic dipole moment, 248-252
        mean recombination time (pn junction), 487
        mobility, 379
        momentum, 214
        motion and drift, 452-453
        in a potential box, 228-230
        spin, 245-247, 271
        spin resonance (ESR) , 280
        standing wave, 353
        surface scattering, 168-172
        as a wave, 205-212, 352-354
        wavefunction in hydrogenic atom , 231-236
        wavefunction in infinite PE well, 229
        wavelength, 207
Electron affinity, 6, 100, 375, 436, 462
Electron beam deposition, 80, 167
Electron drift mobility. See Drift mobility
Electron spin resonance (ESR), 280
Electronegativity, 22, 100
Electron-hole pairs, 376-378
        generation, 302, 376-378, 383 , 410-414
        mean thermal generation time , 490
        recombination, 377-378, 412, 457-458
Electronic impurity, 546
Electronic (quantum) state, 234, 247
Electro-optic effects, 837-841, 842
        field induced refractive index , 838
        Kerr effect, 838, 842
        noncentrosymmetric crystals , 838
        Pockels effect, 838, 843
Electroresistivity, 431, 463
Energy bands, 291-295, 305-308
Energy density, 269, 695
Energy gap (Eg). See Bandgap
Energy, quatized, 214, 236-241
        ground state energy, 215
        in the crystals, 462
        infinite potential well, 230
Energy versus crystal momentum plot. See E-k diagrams
Epitaxial layer, 544, 571
Equilibrium, 100
Equilibrium state, 41, 100
Eutectic composition, 93, 100
Eutectic phase diagrams, 90-95
Eutectic point, 91
Eutectic transformation, 92
Evanescent wave, 798
        attenuation coefficient, 798
        penetration depth, 799
Excess carrier concentration, 410, 462, 468-469
Exchange integral, 702
Exchange interaction, 700-703, 760
Excitation
        activator, 822
        host, 822
Excited atom, 6
Extended states, 458, 462
External quantum efficiency, 571
External reflection, 798, 801-802, 846
Extrinsic semiconductors, 388-396, 462, 464-465


F
Family of directions in a crystal, 58
Family of planes in a crystal, 59
Fermi energy, 294, 324, 317, 320-322, 362, 366, 435-436, 462
        in intrinsic semiconductor, 384
        in a metal, 315-317
        table, 295
Fermi surface, 359
Fermi-Dirac statistics, 123, 312-315, 364
Ferrimagnetism, 700, 760
Ferrite antenna, 767-768
Ferrites, 723, 760, 767-768. See also Ferrimagnetism
Ferroelectric crystals, 647-653, 671
        ferroelectric axis, 649
Ferromagnetism, 699, 760
        closure domains, 706
        domain wall energy, 709-711, 760, 764-765
        domain wall motion, 712-713
        domain walls, 706, 708-711, 760
        domains, 699, 705-706, 761
        electrostatic interaction energy, 701
        energy band model, 742-744
        magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 706-708
        materials table, 704
        ordering, 699
origin, 700-703
        polycrystalline materials, 713-717
Fick's first law, 418
Field assisted tunneling probability, 334
Field effect transistor, 571. See JFET; MOSFET
Field emission, 332-337, 364
Field emission tip, 335
        anode, 335
        gate, 335
        Spindt tip cathode, 335
Field enhancement factor, 370
Fluence
        energy, 275
        photon, 276
Fluorescnece, 820, 842
Flux, defined, 269
        luminous, 853
        of particles, 416
        of photons, 198, 853
        radiant, 853
Flux quantization, 758-759
Forward bias, 487-489. See also pn Junction
Fourier's law, 150, 178
Fowler-Nordheim
        anode current, 335
        equation, 334
        field emission current, 370
Fraunhofer, 244-245
Free surface charge density, 592
Frenkel defect, 66, 100
Fresnel's equations, 793-803, 842
Fresnel's optical indicatrix, defined, 829-832, 843
        extraordinary wave, 829
        ordinary wave, 829
Frequency, resonant
        antiresonant, 645
        mechanical resonant, 645
        natural angular frequency, 664
        resonant angular frequency , 664
Fuchs-Sondheimer equation, 170


G
GaAs, 52, 386, 466
Gas constant, 25
Gas pressure (kinetic theory), 27
Gauge factor, 434
Gauss's law, 614-620, 654-658, 671
Giant magnetoresistance (GMR), 744-748, 751, 760. See also Magetoresistance
        table, 747
Glasses, 78-82. See also Amorphous solids
        melt spinning, 79
GMR. See Gian magnetoresistance
Grain, 70, 100
        disordered, 72
Grain coarsening (growth), 73
Ground state, 215, 269
        energy, 215, 237
Group index, 784-787, 842
        definition, 785
Group velocity, 364, 784-787
        in medium, 785
        in vacuum, 785
Gruneisen's model of thermal expansion, 361-363
        Gruneisen's law, 362, 371
        Gruneisen's parameter (table) , 363
Gyromagnetic ratio, 687


H
Hall coefficient, 146, 178, 359
        for ambipolar conduction, 158
        for intrinsic Si, 158-159
Hall devices, 145-148
Hall effect, 145-148, 178, 185-186
        in semiconductors, 156-159, 468
Hall field, 146
Hall mobility, 148
Hard disk storage, 750-752
        magnetic bit tracks, 751
        magnetoresistance sensor, 751 Hard magnetic materials, 724-729
        design, 768-769
        neodymium-iron-boron, 727
        rare earth cobalt, 726-727
        single domain particles, 724, 761
        table, 724
Harmonic oscillator, 337-342, 364
        average energy, 343
        energy, 338
        potential energy of, 338
        Schrodinger equation, 338
        zero point energy, 339, 365
Heat, 41, 100
Heat capacity, 28, 100
Heat current, 153
Heat of fusion, 84
Heat, thermal fluctuation and noise, 40-45
        noise in an RLC circuit, 44
        rms noise voltage, 44
        thermal equilibrium, 40
Heisendberg's uncertainty principle, 217-220, 269, 277
        for energy and time, 219
        for position and momentum, 218
Helium atom, 254-256
Helium-neon laser, 261-264
        efficiency, 264
Herve-Vandamme relationship, 845
Heterogeneous media, 667-669
        Lichtenecker formula, 668
        lagarithmic mixture rules, 668
        Maxwell-Garnett formula, 669
heterogeneous mixture (multiphase solid), 139-143, 178
Heterojunction, 547, 571
Heterostructure devices, 544, 547
        confining layers, 548
        double heterostructure, 547
Hexagonal crystals, 52, 97
HF resistance of conductor, 163-166
Hole, 155, 302, 373, 376-378, 455-456
        concentration in VB, 382, 391-392
        current due to, 419
        diffusion current density, 418
        diffusion length, 483
        effective mass, 380, 456
        mean recombination time (pn junction), 487
        mobility, 380
Homogeneous mixture, 178-179
Homojunction, 547, 571
Host excitation, 822
Host matrix, 820, 843
Human eye, 273-275
        photopic vision, 273
        scotopic vision, 273
Hund's rule, 256-258, 269, 281
Hybrid orbital, 300
Hybridization, 300
Hydrogen bond, 19
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon. See a-Si:H
Hydrogenic atom, 231-253
        electron wavefunctions, 231-236
        line spectra, 278
Hysteresis loop, 715-719, 761
        energy dissipated per unit volume, 718-719
        loss, 761, 766


I
Image charges theorem, 332
Impact inonization, 503, 571
Impurities, 64-66
Incandescence, 820
Inductance, 163, 693-694
        of a solenoid, 763
        toroid, 694, 723, 765
Infinite potential well, 212-217
Insulation strength. See also Dielectric breakdown
        aging, 627, 671
Integrated circuit (IC), 571
        aspect ratio, 175
        effective multilevel capacitance, 174
        low-k dielectric materials, 175
        multilevel interconnect delay time, 175
        RC time constant, 173, 175-176
Interfacial polarization. See Polarization
Internal discharges. See Dielectric breakdown
Internal reflection, 796-797, 800-801, 846
Interplanar separation in cubic crystals, 851
Interstitial site, 45, 101
        impurity, 66, 83-84
Intrinsic angular momentum. See Angular momentum; spin
Intrinsic concentration (ni), 383, 462, 485
Intrinsic semiconductors, 374-387, 462
Inversion, 532-535, 571. See also MOSFET
Ion implantation, 541-543, 571
Ionic conduction, 179
Ionic crystals, 17
Ionically bonded solids, 14-18, 104
        table, 21
Ionization energy, 6, 15, 101, 237, 462
        for n th shell, 237
        of He+, 240
Irradiance, 787-789
        average, 788, 842
        instantaneous, 788, 842
Isolelectronic impurity, 546, 572
Isomorphous, 101
Isomorphous alloys, 83-88
Isomorphous phase diagram, 84, 179
Isotropic substance, 101


J
JFET, 522-532, 571
        amplifier, 528-532, 577
        channel, 523, 570
        characteristics, 524, 528
        common source amplifier, 529
        constant current region, 528
        current saturation region, 528
        drain, 522
        drain current, 523
        field effect, 528
        gate, 522
        general principles, 522-528
        nonlinearity, 532
        pentode region, 528
        pinch-off condition, 525-526
        pinch-off voltage, 529
        quiescent point, 529
        source, 522
        transconductance, 531
        voltage gain, small-signal, 531
Johnson resistor noise equation, 44
Josephson effect, 756-758
        dc charactersitics, 757
        definition of 1 V, 758
Joule's law, 179
Junction field effect transistor. See JFET


K
k see Wavevector
Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike, 730
Kerr effect, 838, 842
        coefficients, table 840
Kilby, Jack, 474
Kinetic (molecular) theory, 25-36, 101
        degree of freedom, 28
        equipartition of energy theorem, 28
        heat capacity, 28. See also Dulong-petit rules
        mean kinetic energy, 27-28
        mean speed, 27, 30-31, 115
        thermal fluctuations, 40-45
Kossel model, 74
Kramers-Kroning relations, 806, 842-843


L
Lamellae, 93
Langevin function, 661-662
Lasers, 258-267, 269-270
        cavity modes, 265
        diode, 266-269
        Doppler effect, 265
        He-Ne laser, see Helium-Laser laser
        lasing emission, 261
        linewidth, 265
        long-lived states, 260
        metastable state, 260
        output spectrum, 265-267
        population inversion, 259
        pump energy level, 260
        pumping, 260, 270
        semiconductor, 475, 566-569
        single-frequency, 569
        single-mode, 569
        stimulated emission, 259, 271
        threshold current, 569
Lattice, 50, 95, 101. See also Bravais lattices
        parameter, 44, 50, 87, 91
        cut-off frequency, 340
        energy, 18
        parameter, 50, 56, 96, 101
        space, 95
        waves, 337-342, 347, 364
Lattice vibrations, 339-350
        density of states, 343, 363
        heat capacity, 344
        internal energy, 343
        modes, 341-342, 364
        state, 341, 364
Lattice-scattering-limited conductivity, 124
Laue technique, 850
Law of the junction, 482-483, 572
Lennard-Jones 6-12 potencial energy curve, 23
Lever rule, 144
Lichtenecker formula, 668
Light absorption, 804-811
        and conductivity, 808
Light as wave, 191-194
Light emitting diodes (LEDs), 475, 543-551
        characteristics, 548-551
        electroluminescence, 544
        external efficiency, 546
        heterojunction high density, 547-548
        linewidth, 549, 572, 579
        materials, 546
        principles, 543-546
        spectral linewidths, 550-551, 579
        substrate, 544
        turn-on (cut-in) voltage, 550-551, 579
Light propagation, 804-805
        attenuated, 805
        conduction loss, 805
        lossless, 804
Light scattering, 804, 816-817, 844
Light waves, 774-776
Line defects, 68-70
        strain field, 68
Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), 287, 364
Liquidus curve, 85
Local field, 593-594, 658-660, 671-672
Long range order, 49, 78
Lonsdaleite, 62
Lorentz dipole oscillator model, 664
Lorentz equation, 658-600
Lorentz field, 593-594
Lorentz force, 145, 179
Lorenz number, 150. See also Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz
Loss angle, 610
Loss tangent (factor), 607, 672
Luminescence, 820-825
        activator, 820, 842
        activator excitation , 822
        cathodoluminescence, 820, 843
        electroluminescence, 544, 820, 843
        fluorescence, 820, 842
        host excitation, 822
        host matrix, 820, 843
        phosphorescence, 821, 843
        photoluminescence, 820, 843
        radiative recombination center, 822
        Stoke's shift, 822, 844
        X-ray, 820
Luminescent (luminescence centers). See Activator
Luminous efficacy, 854
Luminous (photometric) flux or power, 270, 273, 853
        lumens, 853
Lyman series, 278


M
Madleung constant, 17
Magnet, permanent, 768
        table, 768
        with yoke and air gap, 768-769
Magnetic bit tracks, 751
Magnetic dipole moment, 685-686, 761
        atomic, 687-688
        definition, 686
        of electron, 248-252
        orbital, 249, 687
        per unit volume, 689
        potential energy, 249-250
        spin, 249, 687
Magnetic domains, See Ferromagnetism
Magnetic field (B), 179, 761, 787-789
        in a gap, 771
        intensity, 691-692
        transverse, 793
Magnetic field intensity (strength) See Magnetizing field
Magnetic induction. See Magnetic field
Magnetic materials classification, 696-700
        amorphous, 722
        soft and hard materials, 719-721
        table, 697
Magnetic moment. See Magnetic dipole moment
Magnetic permeability, 179, 692-696, 761. See also Relative permeability
        quantities table, 693
        relative, 692, 762
Magnetic pressure, 769-770
Magnetic quantities and units, table, 693
Magnetic quantum number, 232, 270
Magnetic recording, 749-756
        fringing magnetic field, 749, 771
        general principles, 749-750, 770-771
        hard disk storage, 750-752
        head materials, 752-753
        inductive recording heads, 749
        longitudinal recording, 749
        magnetic bit tracks, 751
        materials tables, 754, 755
        storage media, 753-756, 770-771
        thin film heads, 752
Magnetic susceptibility, 692-696, 762
Magnetism and energy band diagrams, 740-744
        Energy band model of ferromagnetism, 742-744
        Pauli-Spin paramagnetism, 740-742
Magnetization current, 690, 762
Magnetization vector (M), 688-690, 762
        and surface currents, 690, 762
Magnetization versus H, 713-717
        coercivity, 715, 759
        initial magnetization, 716
        remanent (residual) 715, 762-763
        saturation, 703-704, 717, 763
Magnetizing field (H), 691-692, 761
        conduction current, 691
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 706-708, 762
        easy direction, 706, 708, 760
        energy, 708, 762
        hard direction, 708, 761
Magnetometer, 179
Magnetoresistance, anisotropic and giant, 744-748, 762
        current in plane (CIP), 747
        ferromagnetic layer, 745
        spacer, 745
        spin valve, 747
Magnetostatic energy, 705, 762
        density, 696
        per unit volume, 694-696
Magnetostrictive energy, 711-712, 762
        constant, 711
Majority carrier, 410, 463
Mass action law (semiconductors), 383, 463
        with bandgap narrowing, 576
Mass fractions, 8-9, 88
Matthiessens's rule, 125-134, 179, 181
        combined with Nordheim's rule, 137, 142-143
Maxwell's equations, 774
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function, 37-39
Maxwell's principle of equipartition of energy, 28, 42-43
Mayadas-Shatkez formula, 168
Mean free path
        of electron, 122, 123, 179
                in polycrystalline sample, 168
                in thin film, 169
        of gas molecules, 106-107
Mean free time, 117, 119, 121, 179
Mean frequency of collisions, 118
Mean kinetic energy and temperature, 25-31
Mean scattering time. See Mean free time
Mean speed of molecules, 39-40
Mean square free time, 121
Mean thermal expansion coefficient, 35
Mechanical work, 101
Meissner effect, 731, 762
Melt spinning, 79
Metallic bonding, 13, 101
Metallurgical junction (semiconductors), 476, 572
Metal-metal contacts, 320-322
Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS), 532-535, 572. See also MOSFET
        threshold voltage, 539-541, 573
Metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. See MOSFET
Metals, band theory, 352-361
        free electron model of, 315-317
        quantum theory of, 315-320
Miller indices, 58-61, 101
Minority carrier, 410-416, 463
        diffusion, 483
        diffusion length, 463
        excess concentration of, 410-416
        injection, 407-416, 475, 481-483, 572
        lifetime, 412, 463
        profiles (hyperbolic), 574
        recombination time, 412, 573
Miscibility, 101
Mixed bonding, 22-25
Mixture rules, 139-144, 184
Mobility. See Drift mobiltiy
Mode number, 265
Modern theory of solids, 285-371
Molar fractions, 8
Molar heat capacity, 28, 101, 343
Mole, 8, 101
Molecular orbital, 286
Molecular orbital theory of bonding, 285-290
        hydrogenic molecule, 285-289
Molecular orbital wavefunction, 364
Molecular solids, 21
Molecular speeds, distribution (Stern-type experiment), 36
Molecular velocity and energy distribution, 36-40
Monoclinic crystals, 97
Moseley relation, 279
MOSFET, 532,-543, 572
        accumulation, 570
        amplifier, 577-578
        depletion layer, 532-534, 571
        early voltage, 538
        enhancement, 535-539, 571
        field effect and inversion, 532-535
        inversion layer, 534
        ion implanted, 541-543
        MOST, 572
        NMOS, 572
        PMOS, 572
        silicon gate technology, 542
        threshold voltage, 539-541, 573
Moss's rule, 845
Motion of a diatomic molecule, 28-29
        rotational, 28-29
        translational, 28-29
Mott-Jones equations, 324
Muller, K.Alex, 684
Multilevel interconnect
        delay time, 175
        effective capacitance, 174
        RC time constant, 175


N
Nanotube, carbon,63, 336, 370
Natural (resonance) frequency of an atom, 780, 846
Nearly free electron model, 449
Néel temperature, 699
Newton's second law, 25
Nichrome, 135
NMOS, See MOSFET
Nondegenerate semiconductor, 406-407, 463
Node, 215
Nonstoichiometry, 75-76
Noise, 40-45. See also Eelectrical noise
Nonstoichiometry, 75-76
Nordheim's coefficient, 136
        table, 136
Nordheim's rule, 134-139, 179, 182
Normalization condition in quantum mechanics, 214
n-type doping, 388-390
        energy-band diagram, 389
Nucleate (solidfy), 84


O
Ohm's law of electrical conduction, 118, 150
Ohmic contacts, 443-448, 463
Optic axis, 829-830, 843
        principal, 827-828, 843
Optical absorption, 437-431, 804-811, 841
        absorption coefficient, 428, 813
        band-to-band (interband), 429, 813-16
        and conductivity, 808
        free carrier, 805, 847
        lattice, 811-812
        penetration depth, 429, 813
        Reststrahen absorption, 811
        upper cut-off wavelength, 813
Optical activity, 835, 843
        spedific rotary power, 836
Optical amplifiers, 267
Optical anisotropy, 827-833, 841
Optical fiber, 791, 817-819
        attenuation in, 817-819
        cladding, 791
        in communciations, 791-791
        core, 791
Optical fiber amplifiers, 267-268
        Erbium (Er3+ ion) doped, 267, 282
        long-lived energy level, 267
Optical field, 774
Optical indicatrix. See Fresnel's optical indicatrix
Optical power. See Radiant, power
Optical properties of materials, 773-847
Optical pumping, 260, 270
Optically isotropic, media, 778
        crystals, 827 Orbital, 234, 270, 364
        magnetic moment, 249
Orbital wavefunction, 270, 364
Oriental polarization. See Dipolar polarization
Orthorombic crystals, 97


P
Parallel rule of mixtures, 140
Paramagnetism, 698, 762
        Pauli spin, 740-742, 764
Parity, 261
        even, 216
        odd, 216
Partial discharge, 618, 621-622, 672
Partial flux, 416-420
Particle statistics. See Statistics
Paschen
        curves, 677
        series, 278
Passivated Emitter Rear Locally diffused
        cells (PERL), 561-562
Passive device, defined, 572
Pauli exclusion principle, 115, 254-256, 270, 312-313, 701
Pauli spin magnetization, 698, 740-742, 764
Pauli scale of electronegativity, 22
PECVD. See Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Peltier, coefficient, 447-448
        device, 444
        effect, 445
        figure of merit (FOM), 471-472
        maximum cooling rate, 472
Penetration depth, 429, 813
Periodic array of points in space. See
        Crystal structure
PERL. See See Passivated Emitter Rear
        Locally diffused cells
Permanent magnet, (BH)max, 727-729
Permeability, absolute, 692. See also
                Magnetic permeability; Relative
                permeability
        initial, 720-721, 761
        maximum, 720-721, 762
        relative, 692, 762
Permittivity. See Relative permittivity
Phase, 83, 101, 179
        cored structure, 87
        diagrams, 84-88, 101
        equlibrium, 87
        eutectic, 90-95
        lever rule, 87
        liquidus curve, 85
        nonequlibrium cooling, 87
        solidus curve, 85
        tie line, 88
Phonons, 337-352, 364, 409, 463, 815
        dispersion relation, 340, 364
        energy, 340
        group velocity, 341
        lattice cut-off frequency, 340
        momentum, 340, 815
        phosphors, 820-825, 843
        table, 824
Phosphorescence, 821, 843
Photoconductivity, 414-416, 463
Photodetectors, 475
Photodiodes, 564-566
Photoelectric effect, 194-199, 270, 276
Photogeneration, 376, 410-412, 463
        carrier kinetic energy, 473
        steady state rate, 469
Photoinjection, 463
Photometric fulx. See Luminous flux or power
Photometry, 853
Photon, 191-205, 270, 272
        efficiency, quantum, 276
        energy, 196, 200
        flux, 198, 853
        momentum, 199, 200
        picture, 198
Photon amplification, 258-261
Photovoltaic devices, principles, 551-559.
        See alse Solar cell
Photoresponse time, 413-414
Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 167
Physisorption, 74
Piezoelectric
        antiresonant frequency, 645
        bender, 680
        coefficients, 641, 681
        detectors, 681
        electromechanical coupling factor, 642
        inductance, 646
        materials, 672
        mechanical resonant frequency, 645
        poling, 643, 672
        properties table, 642
        quartz oscillators and filters, 664-647
        spark generator, 643-644
        transducer, 641, 673
        voltage coefficient, 644, 680
Piezoresistive strain guage, 434-435
Piezoresistivity, 431-435, 463, 470
        Cantilever equations, 470
        diaphragm, 434
        piezoresistiv coefficient, 433, 463
pin Diodes, 564-566
        depletion layer capacitance, 564
Pinch-off, 524-528
Planar concentration of atoms, 60, 101, 109-110
Planar defects, 70-73
Planck, Max, 203
        constant, 196
Plane of incidence, 793
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), 82
PLZT, 672
PMOS. See MOSFET
pn Junction, 476-493
        band diagram, 494-498
        built in potential, 478-480
        depletion capacitance, 498-499, 571
        depletion region, 477, 571
        depletion region width, 479, 498
        diffusion capacitance, 500-502
        diffusion current, 481-487
        forward bias, 481-487, 571
        hetrojunction, 547
        homojunction, 547
        ideal diode equation, 485
        ideality factor, 488
        incremental resistance, 500-502
        I-V characteristics, 497
        I-V for Ge, Si and GAAs, 486, 489
        no bias, 476-481
        recombination current, 488, 573
        reverse bias, 489-493
        reverse saturation current, 485, 490, 572
        short diode, 486
        space charge layer (SCL), 477, 571
        storage capacitance. See Diffusion capacitance
        temperature dependance, 574
        total current, 487-489
        total reverse current, 491
pn Junction band diagrams 494-498
        built-in voltage from band diagrams, 498
        forward and reverse bias, 495-498
        open circuit, 494-495
Pockels cell phase modulator, 840, 847
Pockels effect, 838, 843
        coefficients, table, 840
Point defects, 64-68
        Frenkel, 66
        impurities, 64-68
        interstitial, 66
        Schottky, 66
        substitutional, 65
        thermodynamic, 64
Poisson ratio, 186
Polar molecules, 19
Polarizability, 586, 588, 781. See Polarization
        defined, 586, 672
        dipolar (orientational), 662
        table, 588
Polarization, 101, 583-603
        charges, 591
        definition, 585-586, 672
        dipolar, 598-600, 660-662, 670
        electronic, 585-589, 595-596, 671, 781
        electronic bond, 671
        induced, 586, 664, 671
        interfacial, 600-601
        ionic, 597-598, 602, 662-667, 671, 811
        mechanisms, 597-603
        orientational. See Polarization, dipolar
         relaxation peak, 665
        table, 602
        total, 601-603
        vector, 589-593, 672
Polarization angle. See Brewster's angle
Polarization modulator, 841
        halfwave voltage, 841
Polarization of EM wave, 796, 825-827, 843
        circular, 826, 841
        elliptical, 827
        liner, 796, 825
        plane, 825
Plarized molecule, 20
Poling, 643, 672
Polycrystalline films and grain boundary
                scattering, 167-168
Polymorphism, 61, 102
Polysilicon gate (poly-Si), 541-543, 572
Population inversion, 29, 270. See also Lasers
Powder technique, 851
Poynting vector, 787-789, 843
Primary a, 94
Primary bonds, 18
Principal optic axis, 827-828
Principal refractive index, 827
Probability. See Statistics
Probability of electron scattering, 119
Probability per unit energy, 39
Proeutectic (primary a), 94
Properties of electrons in a band, 296-299
Property, definition, 102
p-type doping, 390-392
        energy-band diagram, 391
Pumping, 260, 270
PV work, 101
Pyroelectric, crystals, 647-653
        coefficients, 650
        current density, 652
        current responsivity, 652
        detector, 651-652, 681-682
        electric time constant, 682
        material, 672
        table, 650
        thermal time constant, 682
        voltage responsivity, 652
PZT, 672, 681


Q
Q-factor, 672
Quantization
        of angular momentum, 241-245
        of energy, 230, 236-241
        space, 208-213
Quantum leak; see Tunneling
Quantum numbers, 214, 232
        magnetic, 232, 241, 270
        orbital angular momentum, 232, 241-245, 270
        principal, 232, 270
        quantum state, 234
        spin magnetic, 246, 271
Quantum physics, 191-283
        harmonic oscillator, 337-342
        tunneling, 221-228, 271, 278
Quartz oscillators and filter, 644-647
Quartz crysta
        equivalent circuit, 646
        inductance, 647
Quiescent point, 529


R
Radial function, 233-236
Radial probability density, 233
        function, 236
Radiant, 270
        flux, 269, 271, 853
        power, 271
Radiant emittance, 203. See also Black-body radiation
Radiation, 271
        brightness, 853-854
Radiative recombination center, 822
Radiometry, 853
        flux in, 269, 853
Random motion, 416-422
Rare earth cobalt, magnets, 726
Rayleigh scattering, 816-817
Recombination, 383, 407-409, 457-458, 463, 469
        capture coefficient, direct, 469
        current, 487-489, 572
        direct, 407-409, 469
        indirect, 407-409, 457-458
        lifetime, 469
        mean recombination time, 412, 487
        and minority carrier injection, 407-416
        rate, 469
Reflectance, 799-803, 807, 843
        infrared, 811
Reflection of light, 793-799
        coefficient, 793-799, 807, 843
        external, 797, 80-802, 846
        at normal incidence, 796
        phase changes, 795
Refracted light, 789-790, 843
        phase changes, 795
        transmission coefficients, 793-799, 844
Refractive index, 777-779, 844
        complex, 804-811
        definition, 777
        dispersion relation, 773, 781-782, 842, 846
        dispersion relation in diamond, 846
        dispersion relation in GaAs, 783
        field emission, 838
        isotropic, 777
        at low frequencies, 778
        temperature coefficient, 845
        versus wavelength, 779-784
Relative atomic mass. See Atomic mass
Relative permeability, 692, 762
Relative permittivity, 583, 584-585, 672, 673, 778, 781, 844
        complex, 605, 670, 804
        definition, 584, 672
        effective, 667
        loss angle, 610
        real and imaginary, 605-614
        table, 602, 610
Relaxation peak, 607
Relaxation process, 606
Relaxation time, 117, 179, 604, 672
Remanence. See under Magnetization
Remanent magnetization. See under Magnetization
Residual resistivity, 128, 179
Resistivity, effective, 140
Resistivity index (n), 132
Resistivity of metals (Table), 129
        due to impurities, 138
        graph, 130
Resistivity of mixtures and porous materials, 139-144
Resistivity of thin films, 167-172
Resistivity-mixture rule, 140, 142
Resonant frequency. See Frequency, resonant
Reststrahlen band, 811
Retarding plates, 833-835, 844, 847
        half-wave retarder, 834
        quarter-wave retarder, 835
        quartz retarder, 835
        relative phase shift, 834
        retardation, defined, 834
Reverse bias, 489-493, 572. See also pn Junction
RF heating, 77
Rhombohedral crystal, 97
Richardson-Dushman equation, 328-332
Root mean square velocity, 40
Rydberg constant, 245


S
Saturated solution, 102
Saturation of magnetism, 703-704
Schottky defect, 66, 102
Schottky effect, 332-337
Schottky coefficient, 333
Schottky junction, 435-443, 464
        built-in electric field, 437
        built-in potential, 437
        depletion region, 437
        diode, 435-440
        energy band diagram, 436, 438, 440
        I-V characteristic, 438
        Schottky barrier height, 437
        Schottky junction equation, 440
        solar cell, 440-443
        space charge layer (SCL), 437
Schrodinger's equation, 208-212, 271
SCL. See Space charge layer
Screw dislocation, 69, 102
        line, 69
Secondary bonding, 18-22, 102
Secondary emission, 368-369
Seebeck effect, 322-328, 364-365
        in semiconductors, 472, 473
        Mott and Jones equation, 324
        Seebeck coefficient, 322-323
Seed, 77
Selection rules, 242-243, 271
Sellmeier coefficients, 782
Sellmeier equation, 782, 845
Semiconductor bonding, 299-302
Semiconductor devices, 475-581
        ultimate limits to device performance, 578
Semiconductor optical amplufiers, 566-569
        conduction band (CB), 302
        degenerate and non-degenerate, 40-407
        direct and indirect bandgap, 448-458
        strain guage, 434-435
        tables, 366, 386
        valance band (VB), 301
Series rule of mixtures, 140
Shell model, 3
Shockley, William, 372, 473
Shockley equation, 485, 572
Short-range order, 79
Silicon, 80, 299-301, 374-380
        amorphous, 80-82, 459. See also a-Si:H
        conduction band, 302
        crystalline, 0-82
        energy band diagram, 374
        hybrid orbitals, 300
        hydrogenated amorphous silicon
                (s-Si:H), 82, 459
        properties (table), 674
        valence band, 301
        zone refining, 88-90
Silicon gate technology. See Polysilicon gate
Silicon single crystal grawth, 76-77
Skin depth for conduction, 163
Skin effect in inductor, 166
Skin effect: HF resistance of conductor, 163-166, 179
        at 60 Hz, 188
Small signal equivalent circuit, 572
Snell's law, 790-792, 844
Soft magnetic materials, 721-724, 763
        table, 722
Solar cell, 475, 551-563, 581
        antireflection coating, 551, 802-803, 841, 846
        fill factor, 558, 571
        finger electrodes, 551
        I-V characteristics, 556-557
        load line, 557
        materials, devices and efficiencies, 561-563
        maximum power delivered, 580
        normalized current and voltage, 580
        open circuit voltage, 552, 558-559
        operating point, 557
        passivated emitter rear locally diffused
                cells (PERL), 561-562
        photocurrent, 553, 572
        photovoltaic device principles, 551-559
        power delivered to the load, 557
        Schottky junction, 440-443
        series resistance, 559-561, 581
        short circuit current, 556
        shunt (parallel) resistance, 559-561, 581
        total current, 556
Solder (Pb-Sn), 90-95, 111
Solid solution and Nordheim's rule, 134-139, 182
        Cu-Au, 137
        Cu-Ni, 135
Solid solutions, 65, 83-95, 102, 179
        interstitial, 84
        isomorphous, 83
        substitutional, 65
Solidification, nucleation, 70
Solidus curve, 85
Solute, 83, 102
Solvent, 83, 102
Solvous curve, 90
Sound velocity, 347
Space charge layer (SCL), 437, 477. See also pn Junction
Specific heat capacity, 31, 101
Spectral irradiance, 202
Spherical harmonic, 232
Spin, 245-247
        of an electron (defined), 271
        magnetic moment, 280
        magnetic quantum number, 246
        paired, 255
        Stern-Gerlach experiment, 250
Spin-orbit coupling, 280-281
        poetential energy, 281
Spontaneous emission, 259, 271
Sputtering, 167
SQUID, 731
State, electronic, 234, 247, 271, 365
        ground, 215
        stationary state, 210
Statistics, 312-315
        Boltzmann classical statistics, 312-313, 363
        Boltzmann tail, 315
        Fermi-Dirac statistics, 123, 312-315, 364
        of donor occupation, 390, 465
        of dopant inoization, 400
Stefan-Boltzmann law. See Blackbody radiation
Stefan's black body radiation law, 179, 203-204
Stefan's constant, 203-204
Stimulated emission, 259, 271
Stoichiometry compounds, 75, 102
Stoichiometry, 75-76
Stoke's shift, 822, 844
Strain, 24, 102
        shear strain, 102
        volume strain, 102
Strain guage, 186
Stress, 24, 102
        shear stress, 102
Strong force, 4
Substrate, 544, 572
Superconducting solenoid, 737-739, 771
Superconductivity, 685, 729-740, 763
        critical current, 736-739, 769
        critical magnetic field, 735, 760
        critical surface, 737
        critical temperature, 729, 760
        high Tc materials, 731, 736
        Meissner effect, 729-733, 762
        Meissner state, 734
        origin, 739-740
        penetration depth, 734
        table, 736
        type I and II, 733-736, 763
        vortex state, 735
        weak link, 757
        zero resistance, 729-733
Supercooled liquid, 78
Surface current, 690
Surface polarization charges, 589
        density, 590
Surface scattering, 168
Surface tracking, 628, 672. See also Dielectric breakdown


T
Temperature coefficient of capacitance
                (TCC), 672, 677
Temperature coeffecient of resistivity
                (TCR or a), 125-134, 180, 182
        definition, 128
        metals (table), 129
Temperature dependence of resistivity in
                pure metals, 122-125
Temperature of light bulb filament, 187
Ternary alloys, 545
Terrace-ledge-kink model. See Kossel model
Tetagonal crystals, 97
Thermal coefficient of linear expansion, 33, 102, 187
Thermal conduction, 149-154, 185
Thermal conductivity, 149-153, 180
        Ag, 183
        due to phonons, 348
        graph (versus electrical conductivity), 150
        of nonmetals, 348-350
        table, 152
Thermal equilibrium, 40
Thermal equilibrium carrier concentration, 397, 464
Thermal evaporation, 167
Thermal expansion, 31-36, 102
Thermal expansion coefficient. See
                Thermal coefficient of linear expansion
Thermal fluctuations, 40-45
Theraml generation, 376
Thermal generation current, 573-573
Thermal radiation, 202. See also Blackbody radiation
Thermal resistance, 153-154, 180, 185
Thermal velocity, 40, 387, 401, 464
Thermalization, 427
Thermally activated conductivity, 161, 179
Thermally actviated processes, 45-49, 161
        activated state and activation energy, 46, 161
        Arrhenius tupe behavious, 45
        duffusion, 46
        diffusion coefficient, 48
        jump frequency, 47
        root mean square displacement, 48
Thermionic emissin, 328-32, 365, 369
        constant, 331
Thermocouple, 322-328
        equation, 325, 327-328, 369
Thermoelectric emf, 325, 327
        metals (table), 326
Thermoelectric power, 322-323
Thin film, 180, 188
Thin film head, 752
Thin metal films, 166-172
Threshold voltage, 539-541, 573
Toroid, 693-696, 765
Total internal reflection (TIR), 789-792, 797, 844
        critical angle, 791, 842
        phase change in, 797
Transducer. See Piezpelectric, transducer
Transistor action, defined, 509, 573. See also Bipolar junction transistor
Transition temperature, 61
Transmission coefficient, 844
Transmittance, 799-803, 844
Transverse electric field, 79
Transverse magnetic field, 793
Trapping, 409
Triclinic crystal system, 97
Tunneling, 221-228, 271, 278
        field-assisted probability, 334
        probability, 223
        reflection coefficient, 223
        scanning tunneling microscope, 223-227
        transmission coefficient, 222-223
Two-phase alloy resistivity, 143-144
        Ag-Ni, 143
Two-phase solids, 83-95


U
Unharmonic effect, 34
Unharmonic oscillations, 34
Unharmonicity, 34, 349
Uniaxial crystals, 828
Unipolar conductivity, 118
Unit cell, 50, 56, 97, 102
        hexagonal, 52
Unpolarized light, 796
Upper cut-off (threshold) wavelength, 813
        graph, 814
        table, 813


V
Vacancy, 64-68, 102, 110
        concentration in Al, 67-68
        concentration in semiconductior, 67-68
Vacuum deposition, 106-107
Vacuum level (energy), 2922-295, 464
Vacuum tubes, 328-337
        rectifier, 329
        saturation current, 329
Valence band (VB), 301, 374-378, 464
Valence electrons, 5, 102
Valency of an atom, 5
van der Waals bond, 19-20
        water (H2O), 20
van der Waals-London force, 19
Vapor deposition, 167. See also Physical vapor deposition
Varactor diodes, 499
Varshni equation, 467
VB. See Valence band
Velocity density (distribution) functionn, 37
Vibrational wave, 151
Virial theorem, 6, 7, 102-103
Vitreous silica, 78
Volume expansion, 35
Volume expansion coefficient, 35
Vortex state, 735


W
Wave, defined, 271-272
        dispersion relation, 364, 666, 842
        electromagnetic (EM), 191
        energy densities in an EM, 787
        equation, 272, 347
        fields in EM, 787
        group velocity, 341
        incident, 793
        lattice, 340
        light waves, 774-776
        longitudinal, 339
        matter waves, 210
        monochromatic plane EM, 774
        phase, 774, 843
        propagation constant, 774
        reflected, 793
        transverse, 339
        traveling, 192, 774-775
        ultrasonic, 641
        vibrational, 151
Wavefront, 774, 844
Wavefunction, 208-210
        antisymmetric, 216
        defined, 272
        eigenfunction, 210,br>         matter waves, 210
        one-electron, 254
        stationary states, 210
        steady state total, 209
        symmetric, 216
Wavenumber, 192, 774, 844. See also Wavevector
Wavepacket, 784, 844
Wavevector (k), defined, 192, 272, 776, 844
        of electron, 272, 450-456
Weak injection, 425
Weight fractions, 8-9, 88
White LED, 820-825
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz's law, 150
Wien's displacement law, 205, 277
Work function, 196, 272, 295, 365, 434-437, 443, 464
        effective, 333
        of a semiconductor, 384
        tabel, 295, 369, 470


X
X-rays, 193-194, 199-202, 272, 275-276
        diffraction, 849-852
        energy fluence, 275
        photon fluence, 276
        radiography, 275
        roentgen, 275


Y
Young's double-slit experiment (figure), 193-205
Young's fringes, 192
Young's modulus, 102. See also Elastic modulus


Z
Zener breakdown, 502-506, 573
Zener effect, 505
Zener resistance, 729-733 Zero-point energy, 365
Zone refining, 88 - 90

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